Understanding Teacher Shortages: Notes and Sources

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Label Definition
Teaching Attractiveness Rating1

The average quintile rank (1-5) of each indicator in the categories compensation, teacher turnover, working conditions, and teacher qualifications.

Teacher Equity Rating2

The average quintile rank (1-5) of the ratio of uncertified teachers in high- vs. low-minority schools, the ratio of inexperienced teachers in high- vs. low-minority schools, uncertified teachers in high-minority schools, uncertified teachers in low-minority schools, inexperienced teachers in high-minority schools, and inexperienced teachers in low-minority schools.

Compensation Rating3

The average quintile rank (1-5) of starting salary and salary competitiveness.

Starting Salary4

The average starting salary in 2013.

Wage Competitiveness5

Estimated annual teacher wage as percentage of estimated annual non-teacher wage, holding constant age, education level, and hours worked.

Working Conditions Rating6

The average quintile rank (1-5) of administrative support, testing-related job insecurity, collegiality, teacher autonomy, and pupil-teacher ratios.
Pupil-Teacher Ratio7 Pupil-teacher ratio in 2014.
Classroom Autonomy8 Percentage of teachers who report they have control in their classroom in the following areas of planning and teaching: textbooks and class materials, content and skills to be taught, teaching techniques, evaluating students, discipline, and homework.
Collegiality Within School9 Percentage of teachers who strongly agree that there is a great deal of cooperative effort among the staff members.
Testing-Related Job Insecurity10 Percentage of teachers who strongly agree that they worry about the security of their job because of the performance of their students or school on state and/or local tests.
Administrative Support11 Percentage of teachers who strongly agree that their school administration’s behavior toward the staff is supportive and encouraging.
Teacher Qualifications Rating12 The average quintile rank (1-5) of uncertified teachers and inexperienced teachers.
% Inexperienced Teachers13 Percentage of first- and second-year teachers in 2014.
% Uncertified Teachers14 Percentage of teachers who have not met state certification requirements in 2014, including those teaching while still finishing their preparation, or teaching with an emergency-style credential.
Teacher Turnover Rating15 The average quintile rank (1-5) of plans to leave teaching, left profession, and left school or profession.
Left Profession16 Percentage of teachers who left the teaching profession between the 2011-12 school year and the 2012-13 school year, also known as “leavers.”
Left School or Profession17 Percentage of teachers who moved schools or who left the teaching profession between the 2011-12 school year and the 2012-13 school year, also known as “movers and leavers.”
Plans to Leave Teaching18 Percentage of teachers planning to leave teaching as soon as possible or as soon as a more desirable job opportunity arises.
Ratio of Uncertified Teachers in High- vs. Low-Minority Schools19 Percentage of uncertified teachers in high-minority schools / Percentage of uncertified teachers in low-minority schools.
% Uncertified Teachers in Low-Minority Schools20 Percentage of teachers in low-minority schools who are not certified.
% Uncertified Teachers in High-Minority Schools21 Percentage of teachers in high-minority schools who are not certified.
Ratio of Inexperienced Teachers in High- vs. Low-Minority Schools22 Percentage of inexperienced teachers in high-minority schools / Percentage of inexperienced teachers in low-minority schools.
%Inexperienced Teachers in Low-Minority Schools23 Percentage of first- or second-year teachers in low-minority schools.
% Inexperienced Teachers in High-Minority Schools24 Percentage of first- or second-year teachers in high-minority schools.
% Teachers of Color25 Percentage teachers of color in 2012.
   

Notes and Sources

1 Teacher attractiveness ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each teacher attractiveness indicator, then dividing the total by the number of teacher attractiveness indicators available for that state.

2 Equity ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each equity indicator, then dividing the total by the number of equity indicators. The percentage of teachers of color is excluded from this rating because there is not an objective ideal percentage of teachers of color.

3 Average quintile ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each relevant indicator, then dividing the total by the number of compensation indicators available for that state.

4 Starting salary data for California and the District of Columbia is from 2012. NEA Collective Bargaining/Member Advocacy’s Teacher Salary Database, based on affiliate reporting as of December 2013, see http://www.nea.org/home/2012-2013-average-starting-teacher-salary.html.

5 The competitiveness wage index is calculated by dividing the estimated annual wage of elementary and secondary teachers by the estimated wage of non-teachers working in the same state with master’s degrees at both age 25 and age 45, controlling for hours worked per week and weeks worked per year. Baker B., Farrie D., & Sciarra D.G. (2016). Mind the gap: 20 years of progress and retrenchment in school funding and achievement gaps, Table 5. Educational Testing Service: Princeton, NJ. pp. 15.

6 Average quintile ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each relevant indicator, then dividing the total by the number of working conditions indicators available for that state.

7 National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). Digest of Education Statistics. Public and private elementary and secondary teachers, enrollment, pupil/teacher ratios, and new teacher hires: Selected years, fall 1955 through fall 2025. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

8 Teacher autonomy in the classroom is measured using a Cronbach Alpha generated construct of classroom control derived from six components: control over textbooks and materials, content and skills to be taught, teaching techniques, evaluating students, discipline, and homework. The Cronbach Alpha value was equal to 0.76. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2012, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

9 "n/a" signifies that the sample for this state is too small to meet NCES guidelines for reporting. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2012, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

10 Estimates from Alaska, Connecticut, North Dakota, and Vermont should be interpreted with caution—each estimate’s coefficient of variation (CV) is between 30 percent and 45 percent. "n/a" signifies that the sample for this state is too small to meet NCES guidelines for reporting. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2012, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

11 LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2012, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

12 Average quintile ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each relevant indicator, then dividing the total by the number of teacher qualification indicators available for that state.

13 LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

14 The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

15 Average quintile ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each relevant indicator, then dividing the total by the number of teacher turnover indicators available for that state.

16 All estimates other than Texas and Ohio should be interpreted with caution—each estimate’s coefficient of variation (CV) is between 30 percent and 50 percent. "n/a" signifies that the sample for this state is too small to meet NCES guidelines for reporting. LPI analysis of the Teacher Follow-Up Survey, 2013, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

17 LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2012, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics; Teacher Follow-Up Survey, 2013, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

18 Estimates from District of Columbia, New Hampshire, and New Mexico should be interpreted with caution—each estimate’s coefficient of variation (CV) is between 30 percent and 35 percent. "n/a" signifies that the sample for this state is too small to meet NCES guidelines for reporting. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2012, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

19 The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” "n/a" signifies that value is undefined for this state (cannot divide by zero). LPI analysis of the Civils Right Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

20 “Low-minority schools” are schools in the bottom quartile of minority enrollment in each state. The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” This indicator is rounded to the hundredths place. This metric differs from “Percent Uncertified Teachers,” because it measures the average percent of uncertified teachers in each low-minority school and weights each school equally, regardless of size. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

21 “High-minority schools” are schools in the top quartile of minority enrollment in each state. The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” This indicator is rounded to the hundredths place. This metric differs from “Percent Uncertified Teachers,” because it measures the average percent of uncertified teachers in each high-minority school and weights each school equally, regardless of size. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

22 An inexperienced teacher is defined to be in his/her first or second year of teaching. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

23 “Low-minority schools” are schools in the bottom quartile of minority enrollment in each state. This metric differs from “Percent Inexperienced Teachers,” because it measures the average percent of inexperienced teachers in each low-minority school and weights each school equally, regardless of size. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

24 “High-minority schools” are schools in the top quartile of minority enrollment in each state. This metric differs from “Percent Inexperienced Teachers,” because it measures the average percent of inexperienced teachers in each high-minority school and weights each school equally, regardless of size. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2013-14, National Center for Education Statistics.

25 Teachers of color are defined as all teachers but those who identify as white, non-Hispanic. The percentage of teachers of color is excluded from the Teacher Equity Rating because there is not an objective ideal percentage of teachers of color. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2012, from the Schools and Staffing Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.