Understanding Teacher Shortages: Notes and Sources

Back to the Understanding Teacher Shortages: 2018 Update interactive map.

Complete notes and sources for the 2016 version of the interactive are available here.

Label Definition
Teaching Attractiveness Rating1 The average quintile rank (1-5) of each indicator in the following categories: compensation (2016-17), teacher turnover (2016), working conditions (2016), and teacher qualifications (2016).
Teacher Equity Rating2 The average quintile rank (1-5) of each indicator in the following categories: the ratio of uncertified teachers in high- vs. low-minority schools, the ratio of inexperienced teachers in high- vs. low-minority schools, uncertified teachers in high-minority schools, and inexperienced teachers in high-minority schools (2016 data).

Compensation Rating3

The average quintile rank (1-5) of starting salary and salary competitiveness (2016 data).
Starting Salary4 The average starting salary in 2016-17.

Wage Competitiveness5

Average estimated teacher wage as percentage of estimated non-teacher wage for college graduates in each state, at comparable age levels, level of education (BA or MA degree), and working hours per week and year (2016 data).

Working Conditions Rating6

The average quintile rank (1-5) of each of the following indicators: administrative support, testing-related job insecurity, collegiality, teacher autonomy, and pupil-teacher ratios from 2016 survey data.
Pupil-Teacher Ratio7 Pupil-teacher ratio in 2016.
Classroom Autonomy8 Percentage of teachers who report they have control in their classroom in the following areas of planning and teaching: textbooks and class materials, content and skills to be taught, teaching techniques, evaluating students, discipline, and homework (2016).
Collegiality Within School9 Percentage of teachers who strongly agree that there is a great deal of cooperative effort among the staff members (2016).
Testing-Related Job Insecurity10 Percentage of teachers who strongly agree that they worry about the security of their job because of the performance of their students or school on state and/or local tests (2016).
Administrative Support11 Percentage of teachers who strongly agree that their school administration’s behavior toward the staff is supportive and encouraging (2016).
Teacher Qualifications Rating12 The average quintile rank (1-5) of uncertified teachers and inexperienced teachers (2016).
% Inexperienced Teachers13 Percentage of first- and second-year teachers in 2016.
% Uncertified Teachers14 Percentage of teachers who have not met state certification requirements in 2016, including those teaching while still finishing their preparation, or teaching with an emergency-style credential.
Teacher Turnover Rating15 The quintile rank (1-5) of the percentage of teachers who report they plan to leave teaching as soon as possible or as soon as a more desirable job opportunity arises (2016). The percentage who left their school or the profession are omitted from this rating, since recent data are unavailable. For teacher turnover ratings that include 2012-13 data for those variables, see the 2016 interactive map.
Left Profession Recent data unavailable. The National Teacher and Principal Survey did not administer a follow-up survey to measure the rates of teachers leaving the profession in 2016-17. For 2012-13 leaver rates, see the 2016 interactive map.
Left School or Profession Recent data unavailable. The National Teacher and Principal Survey did not administer a follow-up survey to measure the rates of teachers leaving the profession or moving schools in 2016-17. For 2012-13 leaver and mover rates, see the 2016 interactive map.
Plans to Leave Teaching16 Percentage of teachers planning to leave teaching as soon as possible or as soon as a more desirable job opportunity arises (2016).
Ratio of Uncertified Teachers in High- vs. Low-Minority Schools17 Percentage of uncertified teachers in high-minority schools / Percentage of uncertified teachers in low-minority schools (2016).

Uncertified teachers have not met state certification requirements in the field they are teaching, and include those teaching while still finishing their preparation, or teaching with an emergency-style credential.
% Uncertified Teachers in Low-Minority Schools18 Percentage of teachers in low-minority schools who are not certified (2016).

Uncertified teachers have not met state certification requirements in the field they are teaching, and include those teaching while still finishing their preparation, or teaching with an emergency-style credential.
% Uncertified Teachers in High-Minority Schools19 Percentage of teachers in high-minority schools who are not certified (2016).

Uncertified teachers have not met state certification requirements in the field they are teaching, and include those teaching while still finishing their preparation, or teaching with an emergency-style credential.
Ratio of Inexperienced Teachers in High- vs. Low-Minority Schools20 Percentage of inexperienced teachers in high-minority schools / Percentage of inexperienced teachers in low-minority schools (2016). An inexperienced teacher is defined as one in his/her first or second year of teaching.
%Inexperienced Teachers in Low-Minority Schools21 Percentage of first- or second-year teachers in low-minority schools (2016).
% Inexperienced Teachers in High-Minority Schools22 Percentage of first- or second-year teachers in high-minority schools (2016).
% Teachers of Color23 Percentage teachers of color (2016).
   

Notes and Sources

1 Teaching attractiveness ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each teaching attractiveness indicator (compensation, teacher turnover, working conditions, and teacher qualifications), then dividing the total by the number of teaching attractiveness indicators available for that state.

2 Equity ratings are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each equity indicator (the ratio of uncertified teachers in high- vs. low-minority schools, the ratio of inexperienced teachers in high- vs. low-minority schools, uncertified teachers in high-minority schools, and inexperienced teachers in high-minority schools), then dividing the total by the number of equity indicators. The indicator “percentage of teachers of color” is excluded from this rating because there is not an objective ideal percentage of teachers of color. The indicators “uncertified teachers in low-minority schools” and “inexperienced teachers in low-minority schools” are also excluded because they do not reflect whether there is an equitable distribution of teacher qualifications.

3 Average quintile ratings for teacher compensation are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each relevant indicator (starting salary and salary competitiveness), then dividing the total by the number of compensation indicators available for that state.

4 Starting salary data is from NEA (2017). 2016-2017 Average Starting Teacher Salaries by State. See http://www.nea.org/home/2016-2017-average-starting-teacher-salary.html.

5 The wage competitiveness index is calculated by dividing the estimated wage of elementary and secondary teachers by the estimated wage of non-teachers who are college graduates working in the same state, at age levels between 25 and 45, controlling for education (BA or MA), hours worked per week, and weeks worked per year. Obtained by special request from Bruce Baker, who has updated the data from an earlier report: Baker, B.D., Farrie, D., & Sciarra, D.G. (2016). Mind the gap: 20 years of progress and retrenchment in school funding and achievement gaps. Educational Testing Service: Princeton, NJ.

6 Average quintile ratings for working conditions are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each relevant indicator (administrative support, testing-related job insecurity, collegiality, teacher autonomy, and pupil-teacher ratios), then dividing the total by the number of working conditions indicators available for that state.

7 Pupil-teacher ratio is drawn from: Glander, M. (2017). Selected Statistics from the Public Elementary and Secondary Education Universe: School Year 2015-16 (NCES 2018-052). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [07/10/18] from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.

8 Teacher autonomy in the classroom is measured using a Cronbach Alpha generated measure of classroom control derived from six components: control over textbooks and materials, content and skills to be taught, teaching techniques, evaluating students, discipline, and homework. The Cronbach Alpha value was equal to 0.78. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2016, from the National Teacher and Principal Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

9 LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2016, from the National Teacher and Principal Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

10 Estimates from Alaska, Delaware, Maine, Nebraska, New Hampshire, and Vermont should be interpreted with caution—each estimate’s coefficient of variation (CV) is between 30 percent and 49 percent. "n/a" signifies that the sample for this state is too small to meet NCES guidelines for reporting. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2016, from the National Teacher and Principal Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

11 LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2016, from the National Teacher and Principal Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

12 Average quintile ratings for teacher qualifications are calculated by adding the quintile rank of each state on each relevant indicator (uncertified teachers and inexperienced teachers), then dividing the total by the number of teacher qualification indicators available for that state.

13 LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics. The Civil Rights Data Collection is a survey of all school districts in the U.S. conducted every two years. These self-reported district data may differ from state administrative data.

14 The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” Estimates from Tennessee and Rhode Island should be interpreted with caution—estimates vary considerably from 2013-14 estimates. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics.

15 Since the indicators for the percentage of teachers who left the profession or left their school are omitted from this rating, teacher turnover ratings are equal to the quintile rank of each state on teachers’ plans to leave teaching.

16 Estimates from Alaska, Delaware, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire and South Dakota should be interpreted with caution—each estimate’s coefficient of variation (CV) is between 30 percent and 46 percent. "n/a" signifies that the sample for this state is too small to meet NCES guidelines for reporting. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2016, from the National Teacher and Principal Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.

17 The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” Estimates from Tennessee and Rhode Island should be interpreted with caution—estimates vary considerably from 2013-14 estimates. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics.

18 “Low-minority schools” are schools in the bottom quartile of minority enrollment in each state. The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” This indicator is rounded to the hundredths place. This metric differs from “Percent Uncertified Teachers,” because it measures the average percent of uncertified teachers in each low-minority school and weights each school equally, regardless of size. Estimates from Tennessee and Rhode Island should be interpreted with caution—estimates vary considerably from 2013-14 estimates. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics.

19 “High-minority schools” are schools in the top quartile of minority enrollment in each state. The Office of Civil Rights defines certified teachers as those who have “met all applicable state teacher certification requirements for a standard certificate” for a beginning teacher or one who has completed the state-required probationary period. “A teacher who is working toward certification by way of alternative routes, or a teacher with an emergency, temporary, or provisional credential, is not considered to have met state requirements.” This indicator is rounded to the hundredths place. This metric differs from “Percent Uncertified Teachers,” because it measures the average percent of uncertified teachers in each high-minority school and weights each school equally, regardless of size. Estimates from Tennessee and Rhode Island should be interpreted with caution—estimates vary considerably from 2013-14 estimates. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics.

20 Estimates from Tennessee should be interpreted with caution—estimates vary considerably from 2013-14 estimates. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics.

21 “Low-minority schools” are schools in the bottom quartile of minority enrollment in each state. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics.

22 “High-minority schools” are schools in the top quartile of minority enrollment in each state. Estimates from Tennessee should be interpreted with caution—estimates vary considerably from 2013-14 estimates. LPI analysis of the Civil Rights Data Collection, Public-Use Data File 2015-16, National Center for Education Statistics.

23 Estimates from Alaska, Idaho, Kentucky, Maine, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Rhode Island and West Virginia should be interpreted with caution—each estimate’s coefficient of variation (CV) is between 30 percent and 46 percent. Teachers of color are defined as all teachers but those who identify as white, non-Hispanic. The percentage of teachers of color is excluded from the Teacher Equity Rating because there is not an objective ideal percentage of teachers of color. “n/a” signifies that the sample for this state is too small to meet NCES guidelines for reporting. LPI analysis of the Public School Teacher File, 2016, from the National Teacher and Principal Survey, National Center for Education Statistics.