Understanding Teacher Shortages in California: Definitions, Notes, and Sources

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Label Definition Notes and Sources
Teacher Supply Factors
Total teachers The total number of teachers in 2017–18. California Department of Education. (n.d.). Dataquest. https://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ (accessed 4/2/2019).
% teachers who are new hires Percentage of total teachers who were new hires (teachers in their first year of service in their district) in 2017–18. LPI analysis of California Department of Education. (2019). Staff demographics record [Data file and code book]. https://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/df/filesstaffdemo.asp (accessed 7/14/2019).
% new hires with substandard credentials Percentage of 2017–18 new hires (teachers in their first year of service in their district) who have not met all California teacher certification requirements for at least one of the subjects they are authorized to teach. The measure includes interns and those teaching with a permit or waiver. LPI analysis of California Department of Education. (2019). Staff demographics record [Data file and code book]. https://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/df/filesstaffdemo.asp (accessed 7/14/2019); California Department of Education. (2019). Staff credential record [Data file and code book]. https://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/df/fsstaffcred12.asp (accessed 7/14/2019).
% beginning teachers Percentage of first- and second-year teachers in 2017–18. This measure is based on teachers’ total years of public and/or private educational service, including service in the current district, other districts, other states, and other countries. It does not include substitute teaching or classified staff service. California Department of Education. (2019). Staff demographics record [Data file and code book]. https://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/df/filesstaffdemo.asp (accessed 5/22/2019).
% teachers of color Percentage of teachers of color in 2017–18. This measure includes teachers who identify as American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian, Pacific Islander, Filipino, Hispanic or Latino/a, African American, or two or more races in 2017–18. California Department of Education. (2019). Staff demographics record [Data file and code book]. https://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/df/filesstaffdemo.asp (accessed 6/3/2019).
Re-entrants: % leavers who re-enter Percentage of teachers who returned to teaching in the same district in 2017–18 after leaving public school teaching in California for one year during the 2016–17 school year. LPI analysis of California Department of Education restricted-use staffing file.
 
Teacher Demand Factors
Attrition: % left public school teaching in California Percentage of teachers who left public school teaching in California during the 2017–18 school year. This measure identifies teachers who were teaching in California public schools in 2016–17 but are no longer teaching in California public schools in 2017–18. LPI analysis of California Department of Education restricted-use staffing file.
Turnover: % left public school teaching in district/county Percentage of teachers who left teaching in the district/county during the 2017–18 school year, including those who left teaching in California public schools entirely and those who left to teach in a different district/county. The district turnover rate identifies teachers who are teaching in a different district in 2017–18 than they did in 2016–17 or who are no longer teaching in California public schools. The county turnover rate identifies teachers who are teaching in a different county in 2017–18 than they did in 2016–17 or who are no longer teaching in California public schools. The state turnover rate identifies teachers across California who are teaching in a different district in 2017–18 than they did in 2016–17 or who are no longer teaching in California public schools. LPI analysis of California Department of Education restricted-use staffing file.
Student enrollment The total number of students in 2017–18. California Department of Education. (n.d.). Dataquest. https://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ (accessed 4/2/2019).
Enrollment change (2016–17 to 2017–18) Percentage change in student enrollment from 2016–17 to 2017–18. LPI analysis of California Department of Education. (n.d.). Dataquest. https://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ (accessed 4/2/2019); California Department of Education. (2019). Enrollment by school, 2016–17 [Data file and code book]. https://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/sd/filesenr.asp (accessed 9/3/2019).
Projected enrollment growth (2017–18 to 2027–28) Projected percentage change in county-level student enrollment between 2017–18 and 2027–28. Student enrollment projections, which are the basis of this measure, are calculated at the county level and are not available at the district level. State of California Department of Finance. (2019). California public K-12 graded enrollment and high school graduate projections by county, 2018 series. http://www.dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/Projections/Public_K-12_Graded_Enrollment/ (accessed 4/13/2019); LPI analysis of California Department of Education. (n.d.). Dataquest. https://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ (accessed 4/2/2019).
Projected teacher hires (2018–19) The number of full-time equivalent teaching and specialist positions projected or estimated to be hired to fill new or vacated positions for the 2018-19 school year. Districts submit a count of projected teacher hires to the California Department of Education. A vacated position is one in which a teacher is expected to retire, resign, transfer, or begin a leave of absence. Administrative, guidance, media, library, health service, noncertificated positions in “other specializations,” and teachers expected to remain with the school in a new specialization are not included in these counts. California Department of Education. (n.d.). Dataquest. https://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ (accessed 4/2/2019).
Teachers needed to reduce student-teacher ratio to pre-recession levels Teachers needed to reduce 2017–18 student-teacher ratio to pre-recession levels in 2007–08. This measure indicates how many teachers would be needed to return to the levels of staffing that were in place before state budget cuts from 2008 to 2012 caused teacher layoffs and growing class sizes. Values are zero when a district or county has returned to its pre-recession (i.e., 2007–08) student-teacher ratio or lower. Student-teacher ratios are generally smaller than classroom size since teachers may hold non-classroom teaching positions. LPI analysis of California Department of Education. (n.d.). Dataquest. https://data1.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ (accessed 4/2/2019); California Department of Education. (2018). Staff demographics record [Data file and code book]. https://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/sd/df/filesstaffdemo.asp (accessed 5/22/2019).
% teachers 50 and older Percentage of teachers who were aged 50 and older in 2017–18. LPI analysis of California Department of Education restricted-use staffing file.
% teachers 60 and older Percentage of teachers who were aged 60 and older in 2017–18. LPI analysis of California Department of Education restricted-use staffing file.